Prevention and Screening
Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test
Take a screening testAll adults starting at age 35 should be screened for diabetes. However, your provider may recommend you be screened earlier if you have certain risk factors.
Exercise regularlyIn addition to making you feel healthy and strong, exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight, increase energy levels, improve mood, lower blood pressure, increase high-density protein (HDL) cholesterol, and better manage blood sugar levels.
Maintain a healthy weightStaying in a healthy weight range reduces your risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as heart disease and stroke. Losing even just a small amount of weight (5-7% of your body weight or 10-14 lbs for a 200lb person) can significantly reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes!
Eat rightEating a balanced, healthy diet is an important part of promoting overall health and managing your diabetes. The diabetes myplate is a great starting point on how to create a healthy, balanced meal.
More than 1 in 3 American adults have prediabetes. Of those with prediabetes, more than 80% don’t know they have it. Even people with type 2 diabetes may not know they have diabetes. In fact, about 1 in 5 American adults have type 2 diabetes, but don’t know it. That is why regular screenings are recommended.
It can take many years for symptom of type 2 diabetes to develop and many people may not notice symptoms at all. If you are experiencing any of the problems listed below, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have diabetes. It means it’s a good time to see your healthcare provider to discuss your symptoms and get checked for diabetes.
- Increased thirst
- Hunger after eating
- Frequent urination
- Unexplained weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Cuts and bruises that are slow to heal
- Tingling, pain, or numbness in the hands or feet
Screening for Diabetes
An A1c blood test measures the amount of sugar present in hemoglobin. That’s the protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin that has sugar attached to it is officially called HgbA1c, which is how the test got its name.
Amount of sugar in hemoglobin
- Normal A1c Levels: below 5.7%
- Prediabetes: 5.7% - 6.4%
- Type 2 Diabetes: 6.5% or above
FPG stands for “fasting plasma glucose.” The FPG test measures the amount of glucose levels found in the blood after the person has fasted.
Amount of glucose in blood after fasting
- Normal FPG Levels: 99 mg/dL or below
- Prediabetes: 100 mg/dL - 125 mg/dL
- Type 2 Diabetes: 126 mg/dL or above
The OGTT— or oral glucose tolerance test—is done in two steps. After giving a fasting blood sample, the patient drinks a special glucose mixture and then gives another blood sample two hours later.
- Normal OGTT Levels 139 mg/dL or below
- Prediabetes: 140 mg/dL –199 mg/dL
- Type 2 Diabetes 200 mg/dL or above
Risk Factors & Risk Test
- Parents and/or siblings with diabetes
- BMI 25+ or 23+ for Asian Americans
- Lack of physical exercise
- High blood pressure
- A history of gestational diabetes or delivering an infant weighing more than nine pounds
- A history of polycystic ovary syndrome
15.1%Native Americans / Alaskan Natives
12.7%Non-Hispanic Black People
7.4%Non-Hispanic White People